Task 1: HR Management
Difference between Personnel Management and Human Resource Management
According to the behavioural and organizational theory, human resource management (HRM) and personnel management play a key role in streamlining the operations of a firm. Although the roles that these concepts play in an organization appear the same, they are characterized by various differences. For instance, personnel management is administrative in nature, as it deals with workers, their payroll, as well as employment laws. By contrast, HRM deals with management of employees to contribute to the overall success of a firm. HRM is more common compared to personnel management as it develops the skills for personnel management and team of work force for a company. Personnel management is a reactive process because it provides demands and concerns ones they become apparent. On the other hand, HRM is considered proactive as is emphasizes on continuous development of functions and policies for improving the workforce of the company (Nayab & Wistrom, 2013).
Role of Human Resource Management at Cisco
HR professionals and managers play a major role in organizing people to ensure that they work efficiently. Here, employees should be considered as assets rather than organizational costs. At Cisco, the human resource management team embarks on managing employees as strategic resources. The human resource team in the company embarks on managing the recruiting, hiring, coordinating, as well as suggesting the appropriate training for them. The company does this do develop a global culture of individuals as well as organizational capability to sustain a competitive advantage in the market through transitions of the market. This is in line with the Harvard HRM framework, which stipulates that line managers should accept more responsibility to ensure successful alignment of personal policies and competitive strategy in a firm (Bianca, 2015).
Influence of Line Managers on Cisco HRM Processes
Line managers play a key role in managing teams or individual employees. They are then supposed to report to higher management levels based on the performance as well as the wellbeing of the teams and employees they manage. The diverse management responsibilities undertaken by line managers include managing cost of operations, allocating work, managing people daily, checking and monitoring work, dealing with clients, as well as measuring performance. Over the years, processes carried out at Cisco have grown considerably. One of the major strategy for the company is to acquire other firms for it provide new products to the market, grow revenue, as well as reach additional markets. Cisco has managed to acquire a large number of firms from small start-ups to large well-established organizations. As such, the processes within the company have grown considerably, demanding the firm to implement additional strategies for integrating services, products, employees, and systems to manage its processes in an effective manner (Cisco, 2015).
Impact of Legislation/ Regulations at Cisco
Regulations and laws at the local, state, and federal levels have considerable influence on the ways in which firms carry out their HRM practices. In the case of Cisco, the regulations that affect the HRM processes of the company target sexual harassment, affirmative action, and equal opportunity. In terms of equal employment, the company is forced to refrain from discriminate individuals based on race, age, or gender. The company also needs to ensure all employees are treated equally, meaning the firm needs to hire as well as promote those individuals belonging to a certain protected group. Furthermore, the firm should respond to complaints of sexual harassment rapidly as well as observe other employment laws to streamline the operations of the company towards increased productivity and competitiveness (Cliffnotes, 2014).
Task 2: Recruitment and Selection
HR Planning Stages and Reasons for Planning at Cisco
There are a number of stages involved in the HR planning process. These include forecasting of demand, forecasting supply, audit stage, settlement, and control. The human resource planning process should ensure that the correct number of employees possess the relevant skills in a firm. Based on the growing competitiveness of businesses, there is a growing need to plan for human resources. This way, a firm finds it possible to understand the growing needs of clients based on the competitiveness being realized in the business world. With an elaborate HR plan, therefore, a firm is capable of identifying the qualified and talented employees to handle the growing tasks in its premises (Edwards, 2010).
A company embarks on the HR planning processes for various reasons. In the case of Cisco, it has implemented various HR planning initiatives aimed at boosting its competitiveness in the market. The company does this to analyse as well as analyse information regarding the anticipated demand to address the plans of the business. It wants to ensure that it has sufficient supply of labour, who are available both internally and externally. The company also plans to know whether it should promote its employees from within or whether it should outsource certain tasks. This way, Cisco is able to design as well as implement programs that rhyme with its objectives of serving as the leading supplier of leading technology related products and services globally.
Recruitment and Selection Processes for Cisco and IBM
Cisco has introduced a policy that allows it to attract between 10 and 15 percent individuals in the networking industry. Its vision is based on attracting, growing, and retaining great talent to boost the competitive advantage of the company. In its recruitment and selection initiatives, Cisco follows certain processes. It lists various job openings and featured internet addresses to attract potential employees through focus groups. Cisco, also hires in house, especially for manager candidates by employing the amazing people program. The external recruitment techniques that the firm employs are aimed at giving it new ideas, a large pool of qualified employee, and unbiased talent (HRCases, 2008).
IBM is a company operating in the same industry as Cisco. The recruitment process starts when students send their resumes through campus Training and Placement Officer. This is later followed by an independent process of selection comprising of various discussions to match the skills of the students with prevailing business problems that can be solved by certain projects. The offer for selection is made after a match has been found (HRCases, 2008). Furthermore, to attract talented and highly qualified labour, Cisco’s approach aims at introducing various tools, such as online recruitment programs to build a pool of employees after which it uses revolutionary techniques, such as “build the buzz” to attract the best talent competitively. It also places advertisements in newspapers to reach a large audience in the marketplace. For IBM, it demands an aggregate of 70 percent minimum in engineering after which one it offered an internship program (HRCases, 2008).
Task 3: Rewards and Motivation
Job Evaluation Process and Reason for Use in Organization
In order for Cisco to evaluate jobs in its operations, the company developed a technology that provided employees with an opportunity to publicise their career aspirations and experience. The managers are then able to access this information to allocate assignments to individuals or move persons between jobs. Cisco did this to develop a strategy for nurturing talent rather than purchasing it from outside. This helps the company to develop strategic thinkers as well as future leaders. Furthermore, the company aims at being able to develop adaptable and versatile employees who have great knowledge and can move to areas of need quickly. This practice has played a key role in ensuring that employees handle the tasks assigned to them according to the expectations of the organization (Chatman, et al., 2011).
Job evaluation plays a vital role in performance management. Monitoring the performance of employees is crucial to the operations of the firm. Therefore, Cisco needs to employ different techniques to monitor the performance of its employees. One of the effective ways of monitoring employees is watching them work. Watching as an employee works tells one more about the performance of the worker. Asking for an account is also essential in terms of monitoring performance of an employee. This is realized through asking employees to provide an account of what they have done previously. Furthermore, asking employees to use tools for self-monitoring is also an effective way of measuring the performance of an employee, which helps to track their actions. Lastly, reviewing work in progress regularly is another way that HR managers can evaluate performance by checking how employees are working along the way (Tulgan, 2010).
Motivation Theory in Cisco’s Context
Motivated employees are highly productive in an organization. For Cisco, it is appropriate to introduce various activities that help to motivate the employees while working for the company. For instance, according to Herzberg two-factor theory, hygiene and motivator factors determine whether employees develop the motivation to work in a given organization. Various hygiene factors that a firm needs to consider include salaries, wages supervision quality, working conditions, job security feelings, inter-personal relationships quality, and company administration and policy. For motivator factors, a firm needs to address issues affecting status, advancement opportunities, responsibility, stimulating work, gaining recognition, and personal achievement sense (Tutor2u, 2012).
For Cisco, one of the major wars of motivating its employees is through rewards within different situations in the company. The different reward systems prevalent in the company target paid time off and holidays, peer and manager recognition, service anniversary awards, long-term saving packages, competitive pay based on performance, annual bonuses, and stock incentive program. These have played a key role in motivating Cisco employees to improve their performance and contribute towards competitiveness of the company in the market (Cisco a, 2015).
Task 4: Employee Exit Procedures
Reasons for Cessation of Employment at Cisco
There are various reasons why employees are terminated from work at Cisco. Violation of any of the company’s policies and philosophy is a key issue in this case. For instance, employees who harass or bully other employees based on their gender, race, ancestry, national origin, sexual orientation, mental conditions, marital status, or gender identity are subject to dismissal in the company. Cisco has also set up a drug and alcohol policy, whereby employees found using, possessing, selling, transferring, or distributing the company’s property during working hours is terminated. Furthermore, engaging in violence or failing to respect the rights of co-workers leads to termination from the company. This also applied in the case where employees are under performers and show no improvement towards contributing to the productivity of the company (Cisco b, 2015). The company lays great emphasis on these issues to enable it sustain a conducive and competitive work environment.
Employment Exit for CISCO and IBM
There are various reasons as to why employees exit an organization. Some of these could be personal while others are professional. For Cisco and IBM, the two companies have a positive reputation of recognizing the job performance of their employees. They implement corporate cultures that are ideal for all, have a solid financial base, provide their employees with meaningful jobs and independence, allow workers to contribute to the organization’s goals, and provide them with a broad range of opportunities to use their abilities and skills. Nonetheless, employees still leave these organizations. At Cisco and IBM, the major reasons why employees exit the firms include staying home with children and the perception of employees towards their work. Some employees also encounter challenging situations in these companies and decide to leave. Others feel they are not utilizing their full capacity while in these firms and decide to look for career opportunities that meet their professional needs (Heathfield, 2015).
Legal and Regulatory Framework on Employment Cessation
The legal environment plays a key role in determining whether a firm has dismissed an employee in the right manner. A firm should always be mindful of termination laws as firing an individual without sufficient reasons could land it legal challenges. The legal environment disregards termination of an employee based on any form of discrimination or by asserting his rights in anti-discrimination laws (Findlaw, 2014). Thus, in the case of Cisco it should ensure that it follows all the right guidelines before terminating an employee. It should also ensure that terminated employees sign a ‘release’ form to avoid any forms of lawsuits with the worker.
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